|3 Months Ended|
Jan. 31, 2020
|Revenue Recognition [Abstract]|
NOTE 2 – REVENUE RECOGNITION
Beginning on November 1, 2018, the Company adopted the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“Topic 606”). Previously, we had recognized revenue in accordance with FASB Topic 605, Revenue Recognition. After carefully comparing the old and the new revenue standards, we believe that our previous revenue recognition policy is substantially consistent with our new revenue recognition policy and that revenues are consistently stated between periods and there was not be a cumulative effect adjustment.
Topic 606 has established a five-step process to determine the amount of revenue to record from contracts with customers. The five steps are:
Our revenues are earned under formal contracts with our customers and are derived from both sales and rental of underwater technologies and equipment for real time 3D imaging, mapping, defense and survey applications and from the engineering services that we provide broadly to prime defense contractors. Our contracts do not include the possibility for additional contingent consideration so that our determination of the contract price does not involve having to consider potential additional variable consideration. Our sales do not include a right of return by the customer.
With regard to our Marine Technology Business (“Products Segment”), all of our products are sold on a stand-alone basis and those market prices are evidence of the value of the products. To the extent that we also provide services (e.g., installation, training, post-sales technical support etc.), those services are either included as part of the product or are subject to written contracts based on the stand-alone value of those services. Revenue from the sale of services is recognized when those services have been provided to the customer and evidence of the provision of those services exist.
Revenue derived from either our subscription package offering or rental of our equipment is recognized when performance obligations are met, in particular, on a daily basis during the subscription or rental period.
For arrangements with multiple performance obligations, we recognize product revenue by allocating the transaction revenue to each performance obligation based on the relative fair value of each deliverable and recognize revenue when performance obligations are met including when equipment is delivered, and for rental of equipment, when installation and other services are performed.
Our contracts sometimes require customer payments in advance of revenue recognition and are recognized as revenue when the Company has fulfilled its obligations under the respective contracts. Until such time, we recognize this prepayment as deferred revenue.
For software license sales for which any services rendered are not considered essential to the functionality of the software, we recognize revenue upon delivery of the software.
With respect to revenues related to our Services Segment, there are contracts in place that specify the fixed hourly rate and other reimbursable costs to be billed based on material and direct labor hours incurred and, revenue is recognized on these contracts based on material and direct labor hours incurred. Revenues from fixed-price contracts are recognized on the percentage-of-completion method, measured by the percentage of costs incurred (materials and direct labor hours) to date to estimated total services (materials and direct labor hours) for each contract. This method is used as we consider expenditures for direct materials and labor hours to be the best available measure of progress on these contracts.
Quarterly, we examine all of our fixed-price contracts to determine if there are any losses to be recognized during the period. Any such loss is recorded in the quarter in which the loss first becomes apparent based upon costs incurred to date and the estimated costs to complete as determined by experience from similar contracts. Variations from estimated contract performance could result in adjustments to operating results.
Recoverability of Deferred Costs
In accordance with Topic 606, we defer costs on projects for service revenue. Deferred costs consist primarily of direct and incremental costs to customize and install systems, as defined in individual customer contracts, including costs to acquire hardware and software from third parties and payroll costs for our employees and other third parties. The pricing of these service contracts is intended to provide for the recovery of these types of deferred costs over the life of the contract.
We recognize such costs in accordance with our revenue recognition policy by contract. For revenue recognized under the percentage of completion method, costs are recognized as products are delivered or services are provided in accordance with the percentage of completion calculation. For revenue recognized over time, costs are recognized ratably over the term of the contract, commencing on the date of revenue recognition. At each quarterly balance sheet date, we review deferred costs, to ensure they are ultimately recoverable.
Any anticipated losses on uncompleted contracts are recognized when evidence indicates the estimated total cost of a contract exceeds its estimated total revenue.
Our incremental direct costs of obtaining a contract, which consists of sales commissions are deferred and amortized over the period of the contract performance. We classify deferred commissions as current or noncurrent based on the timing of when we expect to recognize the expense. The current and noncurrent portions of deferred commissions are included in prepaid expenses and other current assets, and other assets, net, respectively, in our consolidated balance sheets. At January 31, 2019 and October 31, 2019, we had deferred commissions of $25,359 and $0, respectively. Amortization expense related to deferred commissions was $42,816 and $0 in the first quarters of 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Other Revenue Disclosures
See Note 14 – Segment Analysis for a breakdown of revenues from external customers and cost of those revenues between our Product Segment and Services Segment including information on the split of revenues by geography.