Summary of Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Oct. 31, 2020
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Accounting Policies||
NOTE 2 - SUMMARY OF ACCOUNTING POLICIES
a. Basis of Presentation
The Company has adopted the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Codification (Codification). The Codification is the single official source of authoritative accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (U.S. GAAP) recognized by the FASB to be applied by nongovernmental entities, and all of the Codification’s content carries the same level of authority.
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with a maturity of three months or less at the time of purchase to be cash equivalents. At times such investments may be in excess of federal deposit insurance limits.
c. Trade Accounts Receivable
Trade accounts receivable are recorded net of the allowance for doubtful accounts. The Company provides for an allowance for doubtful collections that is based upon a review of outstanding receivables, historical collection information, and existing economic conditions. Balances still outstanding after the Company has used reasonable collection efforts are written off though a charge to the valuation allowance and a credit to trade accounts receivable. The allowance for doubtful accounts was $47,807 as of October 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
d. Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Expenditures for minor replacements, maintenance and repairs which do not increase the useful lives of the property and equipment are charged to operations as incurred. Major additions and improvements are capitalized. Depreciation and amortization are computed using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives which is typically three to five years for equipment and 30 years for buildings.
Coda follows the policy of charging the costs of advertising to expense as incurred, which aggregated $4,884 and $18,271 for the years ended October, 31 2020 and 2019 respectively.
Inventory is stated at the lower of cost (Weighted Average method) or net realizable value. Inventory consisted of the following components:
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues including unbilled and deferred revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Significant estimates include estimates related to the percentage of completion method used to account for contracts including costs and earnings in excess of billings, billings in excess of costs and estimated earnings and the valuation of goodwill.
h. Revenue Recognition
Beginning on November 1, 2018, the Company adopted the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“Topic 606”). Previously, we had recognized revenue in accordance with FASB Topic 605, Revenue Recognition. After carefully comparing the old and the new revenue standards, we believe that our previous revenue recognition policy is substantially consistent with our new revenue recognition policy and that revenues are consistently stated between periods and no cumulative effect adjustment was required.
Topic 606 has established a five-step process to determine the amount of revenue to record from contracts with customers. The five steps are:
Our revenues are earned under formal contracts with our customers and are derived from both sales and rental of underwater technologies and equipment for real time 3D imaging, mapping, defense and survey applications and from the engineering services which we provide primarily to prime defense contractors. Our contracts do not include the possibility for additional contingent consideration so that our determination of the contract price does not involve having to consider potential additional variable consideration. Our sales do not include a right of return by the customer.
With regard to our Marine Technology Business (“Products Business”), all of our products are sold on a stand-alone basis and those market prices are evidence of the value of the products. To the extent that we also provide services (e.g., installation, training, post-sales technical support etc.), those services are either included as part of the product or are subject to written contracts based on the stand-alone value of those services. Revenue from the sale of services is recognized when those services have been provided to the customer and evidence of the provision of those services exist.
Revenue derived from either our subscription package offerings or rental of our equipment is recognized when performance obligations are met, in particular, on a daily basis during the subscription or rental period.
For arrangements with multiple performance obligations, we recognize product revenue by allocating the transaction revenue to each performance obligation based on the relative fair value of each deliverable and recognize revenue when performance obligations are met including when equipment is delivered, and for rental of equipment, when installation and other services are performed.
Our contracts sometimes require customer payments in advance of revenue recognition and are recognized as revenue when the Company has fulfilled its obligations under the respective contracts. Until such time, we recognize this prepayment as deferred revenue.
For software license sales for which any services rendered are not considered distinct to the functionality of the software, we recognize revenue upon delivery of the software.
With respect to revenues related to our Services Business, there are contracts in place that specify the fixed hourly rate and other reimbursable costs to be billed based on material and direct labor hours incurred and, revenue is recognized on these contracts based on material and the direct labor hours incurred. Revenues from fixed-price contracts are recognized on the percentage-of-completion method, measured by the percentage of costs incurred (materials and direct labor hours) to date to estimated total services (materials and direct labor hours) for each contract. This method is used as we consider expenditures for direct materials and labor hours to be the best available measure of progress on these contracts.
On a quarterly basis, we examine all of our fixed-price contracts to determine if there are any losses to be recognized during the period. Any such loss is recorded in the quarter in which the loss first becomes apparent based upon costs incurred to date and the estimated costs to complete as determined by experience from similar contracts. Variations from estimated contract performance could result in adjustments to operating results.
Recoverability of Deferred Costs
In accordance with Topic 606, we defer costs on projects for service revenue. Deferred costs consist primarily of incremental direct costs to customize and install systems, as defined in individual customer contracts, including costs to acquire hardware and software from third parties and payroll costs for our employees and other third parties. The pricing of these service contracts is intended to provide for the recovery of these types of deferred costs over the life of the contract.
We recognize such costs in accordance with our revenue recognition policy by contract. For revenue recognized under the percentage of completion method, costs are recognized as products are delivered or services are provided in accordance with the percentage of completion calculation. For revenue recognized over time, costs are recognized ratably over the term of the contract, commencing on the date of revenue recognition. At each quarterly balance sheet date, we review deferred costs, to ensure they are ultimately recoverable.
Any anticipated losses on uncompleted contracts are recognized when evidence indicates the estimated total cost of a contract exceeds its estimated total revenue.
Our incremental direct costs of obtaining a contract, which consists of sales commissions are deferred and amortized over the period of the contract performance. We classify deferred commissions as current or noncurrent based on the timing of when we expect to recognize the expense. The current and noncurrent portions of deferred commissions are included in prepaid expenses and other current assets, and other assets, net, respectively, in our consolidated balance sheets. As of October 31, 2020 and 2019, we had deferred commissions of $3,884 and $68,175, respectively. Amortization expense related to deferred commissions was $125,284 and $127,590 in the years ended October 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Other Revenue Disclosures
See Note 12 – Segment Analysis for a breakdown of revenues from external customers and cost of those revenues between our Product Segment and Services Segment including information on the split of revenues by geography.
i. Concentrations of Risk
Credit losses, if any, have been provided for in the consolidated financial statements and are based on management’s expectations. The Company’s accounts receivables are subject to potential concentrations of credit risk, since a significant part of the Company’s sales are to a small number of companies and, even though these are generally established businesses, market fluctuations such as the price of oil may affect our customers’ ability to meet their obligations to us. Furthermore, Trade disputes may result in impairment or delays in receivables.
The Company’s bank deposits are held with financial institutions both in and outside the USA. At times, such amounts may be in excess of applicable government mandated insurance limits. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts or lack of access to its cash, and believes it is not exposed to significant risk of loss with respect to cash.
j. Contracts in Progress (Unbilled Receivables and Deferred Revenue)
Costs and estimated earnings in excess of billings on uncompleted contracts represent accumulated project expenses and fees which have not been invoiced to customers as of the date of the balance sheet. These amounts are stated on the consolidated balance sheets as Unbilled Receivables of $861,300 and $2,279,362 as of October 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Our Deferred Revenue of $989,588 and $973,735 as of October 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, consists of billings in excess of costs and revenues received as part of our warranty obligations upon completing a sale, as elaborated further in the last paragraph of this note.
Revenue received as part of sales of equipment includes a provision for warranty and is treated as deferred revenue, along with extended warranty sales, which may be purchased by customers. These amounts are amortized over the relevant warranty period (12 months is our standard warranty or 24, 36 or 60 months for extended warranty) from the date of sale. These amounts are stated on the consolidated balance sheets as a component of Deferred Revenue and were $211,888 and $497,819 as of October 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
k. Income Taxes
The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification 740, Income Taxes (ASC 740). Under ASC 740, deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recorded for the income tax effects of differences between the bases of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and their bases for income tax reporting. The Company’s differences arise principally from the use of various accelerated and modified accelerated cost recovery systems for income tax purposes versus straight line depreciation used for book purposes and from the utilization of net operating loss carry-forwards.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are the amounts by which the Company’s future income taxes are expected to be impacted by these differences as they reverse. Deferred tax assets are based on differences that are expected to decrease future income taxes as they reverse. Correspondingly, deferred tax liabilities are based on differences that are expected to increase future income taxes as they reverse. Note 7 below discusses the amounts of deferred tax assets and liabilities, and also presents the impact of significant differences between financial reporting income and taxable income.
For income tax purposes, the Company uses the percentage of completion method of recognizing revenues on long-term contracts which is consistent with the Company’s financial reporting under U.S. GAAP.
l. Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Goodwill and Intangible assets consist principally of the excess of cost over the fair value of net assets acquired (or goodwill), customer relationships, non-compete agreements and licenses. Goodwill was allocated to our reporting units based on the original purchase price allocation. Goodwill is not amortized and is evaluated for impairment annually or more often if circumstances indicate impairment may exist. Customer relationships, non-compete agreements, patents and licenses are being amortized on a straight-line basis over periods of 2 to 15 years. The Company amortizes its limited life goodwill and intangible assets using the straight-line method over their estimated period of benefit. We periodically evaluate the recoverability of goodwill and intangible assets and take into account events or circumstances that warrant revised estimates of useful lives or that indicate that impairment exists.
Step 1 of the goodwill impairment test, used to identify potential impairment, compares the fair value of the reporting unit with its carrying amount, including goodwill. If the fair value, which is based on future cash flows, exceeds the carrying amount, goodwill is not considered impaired. If the carrying amount exceeds the fair value, the Step 2 must be performed to measure the amount of the impairment loss, if any. The Company has adopted Accounting Standards Codification 2017 – 04, simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment, which permits the Company to impair the difference between carrying amounts in excess of the fair value of the reporting unit as the reduction in goodwill. ASC 2017-04 eliminates the requirement in previous GAAP to perform Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test.
At the end of each year, we evaluate goodwill on a separate reporting unit basis to assess recoverability, and impairments, if any, are recognized in earnings. An impairment loss would be recognized in an amount equal to the excess of the carrying amount of the reporting unit over the fair value of the reporting unit.
There were no impairment charges recognized during the years ended October 31, 2020 and 2019.
m. Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company’s financial instruments include cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable, accrued expenses and notes payable. The carrying amounts of cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate fair values because of the short-term nature of these instruments. The aggregate carrying amount of the notes payable approximates fair value as they bear interest at a market interest rate based on their term and maturity.
The fair value of the Company’s long-term debt approximates its carrying amount based on the fact that the Company believes it could obtain similar terms and conditions for similar debt.
n. Foreign Currency Translation
Assets and liabilities are translated at the prevailing exchange rates at the balance sheet dates. Related revenues and expenses are translated at weighted average exchange rates in effect during the period. Stockholders’ equity, fixed assets and long-term investments are recorded at historical exchange rates. Resulting translation adjustments are recorded as a separate component in stockholders’ equity as part of accumulated other comprehensive income or (loss) as may be appropriate. Foreign currency transaction gains and losses are included in the consolidated statements of income and comprehensive income.
o. Long-Lived Assets
Long-lived assets to be held and used are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. The carrying amount of a long-lived asset is not recoverable if its carrying amount exceeds the sum of the undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use and eventual disposal of the asset. Long-lived assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of carrying amount or fair value less cost to sell. No impairment loss was recognized during the years ended October 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
p. Research and Development
Research and development costs consist of expenditures for the development of present and future patents and technology, which are not capitalizable. Under current legislation, we are eligible for UK tax credits related to our qualified research and development expenditures.
Tax credits are classified as a reduction of research and development expense. During the years ended October 31, 2020 and 2019, we had $0 and $0, respectively.
q. Stock Based Compensation
In accordance with the accounting rules for stock compensation, for time based awards, the Company is accruing a stock compensation expense and increase to additional paid in capital based on the market value of the common stock as of the grant date throughout the vesting period. The vesting period for the awards is three years and is based on the employee’s continuous service to the Company. Prior to vesting, the awards are subject to forfeiture in whole or in part under certain circumstances. We use the Black-Scholes method for equity instruments granted to employees.
r. Comprehensive Income
Comprehensive income is defined to include all changes in equity except those resulting from investments by owners and distributions to owners. Comprehensive income includes gains and losses on foreign currency translation adjustments and is included as a component of stockholders’ equity.
s. Earnings per Share
We compute basic earnings per share by dividing the income attributable to common shareholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding in the reporting period.
Following is a reconciliation of earnings from continuing operations and weighted average common shares outstanding for purposes of calculating basic and diluted earnings per share:
t. Reclassification of Prior Year Presentation
Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified for consistency with the current year presentation. These reclassifications had no effect on the reported results of operations. An adjustment has been made to the Consolidated Balance Sheet and Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2019, to reclassify the Value Added Tax (VAT) receivable.
u. Recent Accounting Pronouncements
There have been no new accounting pronouncements not yet effective that have significance, or potential significance, to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef