Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Accounting Policies

Summary of Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Oct. 31, 2017
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Accounting Policies



a. Basis of Presentation


The Company has adopted the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Codification (Codification). The Codification is the single official source of authoritative accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (U.S. GAAP) recognized by the FASB to be applied by nongovernmental entities, and all of the Codification’s content carries the same level of authority.


b. Cash and Cash Equivalents


The Company considers all highly liquid investments with a maturity of three months or less at the time of purchase to be cash equivalents. At times such investments may be in excess of federal deposit insurance limits.


c. Trade Accounts Receivable


Trade accounts receivable are recorded net of an allowance for doubtful accounts. The Company provides for an allowance for doubtful collections that is based upon a review of outstanding receivables, historical collection information, and existing economic conditions. Balances still outstanding after the Company has used reasonable collection efforts are written off though a charge to the valuation allowance and a credit to trade accounts receivable. The allowance for doubtful accounts was $36,553 and $30,053 as of October 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively.


d. Property and Equipment


Property and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Expenditures for minor replacements, maintenance and repairs which do not increase the useful lives of the property and equipment are charged to operations as incurred. Major additions and improvements are capitalized. Depreciation and amortization are computed using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives which is typically three to four years for equipment and 30 years for land and buildings.


e. Advertising


Coda follows the policy of charging the costs of advertising to expense as incurred, which aggregated $0 and $130 for the years ended October, 31 2017 and 2016, respectively.


f. Inventory


Inventory is stated at the lower of cost (weighted average method) or market. Inventory consisted of the following components:


    October 31,     October 31,  
    2017     2016  
Raw materials and parts   $ 2,651,511     $ 1,734,798  
Work in progress     501,692       88,682  
Demo goods     349,480       324,752  
Finished goods     149,566       450,693  
Total Inventory   $ 3,652,249     $ 2,598,925  


g. Estimates


The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues including unbilled and deferred revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Significant estimates include estimates related to the percentage of completion method used to account for contracts including costs and earnings in excess of billings, billings in excess of costs and estimated earnings and the valuation of goodwill.


h. Revenue Recognition


Our revenue is derived from sales of underwater technologies and equipment for imaging, mapping, defense and survey applications and from the engineering services which we provide. Revenue is recognized when evidence of a contractual arrangement exists, delivery has occurred or services have been rendered, the contract price is fixed or determinable, and collectability is reasonably assured. No right of return privileges are granted to customers after delivery.


For arrangements with multiple deliverables, we recognize product revenue by allocating the revenue to each deliverable based on the relative fair value of each deliverable, and recognize revenue when equipment is delivered, and for installation and other services as they are performed.


Our contracts sometimes require customer payments in advance of revenue recognition. These amounts are reflected as liabilities and recognized as revenue when the Company has fulfilled its obligations under the respective contracts.


For software license sales for which any services rendered are not considered essential to the functionality of the software, we recognize revenue upon delivery of the software, provided (1) there is evidence of a contractual arrangement for this, (2) collection of our fee is considered probable and (3) the fee is fixed and determinable.


For arrangements that are generated from time and material contracts where there is a signed agreement and approved purchase order in place that specifies the fixed hourly rate and other reimbursable costs to be billed based on material and direct labor hours incurred, revenue is recognized based on material and direct labor hours incurred. Revenues from fixed-price contracts are recognized on the percentage of completion method, measured by the percentage of costs incurred (materials and direct labor hours) to date to estimated total services (materials and direct labor hours) for each contract. This method is used as expenditures for direct materials and labor hours are considered to be the best available measure of progress on these contracts. Losses on fixed-price contracts are recognized during the period in which the loss first becomes apparent based upon costs incurred to date and the estimated costs to complete as determined by experience from similar contracts. Variations from estimated contract performance could result in adjustments to operating results.


Rental revenue is recognized monthly over the term of the rental period.


i. Concentrations of Risk


Credit losses, if any, have been provided for in the consolidated financial statements and are based on management’s expectations. The Company’s accounts receivable are subject to potential concentrations of credit risk, since a significant part of the Company’s sales are to a small number of companies and, even though these are generally established businesses, market fluctuations such as the price of oil may affect our customers’ ability to meet their obligations to us.


The Company’s bank deposits are held with financial institutions both in and out of the USA. At times, such amounts may be in excess of applicable government mandated insurance limits. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts or lack of access to its cash, and believes it is not exposed to significant risk of loss with respect to cash.


j. Contracts in Progress (Unbilled Receivables and Deferred Revenue)


Costs and estimated earnings in excess of billings on uncompleted contracts represent accumulated project expenses and fees which have not been invoiced to customers as of the date of the balance sheet. These amounts are stated on the consolidated balance sheets as Unbilled Receivables of $2,723,172 and $3,406,693 as of October 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively.


Our Deferred Revenue of $402,955 and $464,541 as of October 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively, consists of billings in excess of costs and revenues received as part of our warranty obligations upon completing a sale – elaborated further in the last paragraph of this note.


Revenue received as part of sales of equipment includes a provision for warranty and is treated as deferred revenue, along with extended warranty sales, with these amounts amortized over 12 months, our stated warranty period, from the date of sale. These amounts are stated on the balance sheets as a component of Deferred Revenue of $452,098 and $464,541 as of October 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively.


k. Income Taxes


The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification 740, Income Taxes (ASC 740). Under ASC 740, deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recorded for the income tax effects of differences between the bases of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and their bases for income tax reporting. The Company’s differences arise principally from the use of various accelerated and modified accelerated cost recovery systems for income tax purposes versus straight-line depreciation used for book purposes and from the utilization of net operating loss carry-forwards.


Deferred tax assets and liabilities are the amounts by which the Company’s future income taxes are expected to be impacted by these differences as they reverse. Deferred tax assets are based on differences that are expected to decrease future income taxes as they reverse. Correspondingly, deferred tax liabilities are based on differences that are expected to increase future income taxes as they reverse. Note 7 below discusses the amounts of deferred tax assets and liabilities, and also presents the impact of significant differences between financial reporting income and taxable income.


For income tax purposes, the Company uses the percentage of completion method of recognizing revenues on long-term contracts which is consistent with the Company’s financial reporting under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.


l. Intangible Assets


Intangible assets consist principally of the excess of cost over the fair value of net assets acquired (or goodwill), customer relationships, non-compete agreements and licenses. Goodwill was allocated to our reporting units based on the original purchase price allocation. Goodwill is not amortized and is evaluated for impairment annually or more often if circumstances indicate impairment may exist. Customer relationships, non-compete agreements, patents and licenses are being amortized on a straight-line basis over periods of 2 to 10 years. The Company amortizes its limited lived intangible assets using the straight-line method over their estimated period of benefit. We periodically evaluate the recoverability of intangible assets and take into account events or circumstances that warrant revised estimates of useful lives or that indicate that impairment exists.


The first step of the goodwill impairment test, used to identify potential impairment, compares the fair value of the reporting unit with its carrying amount, including goodwill. If the fair value, which is based on future cash flows, exceeds the carrying amount, goodwill is not considered impaired. If the carrying amount exceeds the fair value, the second step must be performed to measure the amount of the impairment loss, if any. The second step compares the implied fair value of the reporting unit’s goodwill with the carrying amount of that goodwill. At the end of each year, we evaluate goodwill on a separate reporting unit basis to assess recoverability, and impairments, if any, are recognized in earnings. An impairment loss would be recognized in an amount equal to the excess of the carrying amount of the goodwill over the implied fair value of the goodwill. There were no impairment charges recognized during the years ended October 31, 2017 and 2016.


m. Fair Value of Financial Instruments


The Company’s financial instruments include cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable, accrued expenses and notes payable. The carrying amounts of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate fair values because of the short-term nature of these instruments. The aggregate carrying amount of the notes payable approximates fair value as they bear interest at a market interest rate based on their term and maturity. The fair value of the Company’s long-term debt approximates its carrying amount based on the fact that the Company believes it could obtain similar terms and conditions for similar debt.


n. Foreign Currency Translation


Assets and liabilities are translated at the prevailing exchange rates at the balance sheet dates; related revenue and expenses are translated at weighted average exchange rates in effect during the period and stockholders’ equity; and fixed assets and long-term investments are recorded at historical exchange rates. Resulting translation adjustments are recorded as a separate component in stockholders’ equity as part of accumulated other comprehensive income or (loss) as may be appropriate. Foreign currency transaction gains and losses are included in the consolidated statements of income and comprehensive income.


o. Long-Lived Assets


Long-lived assets to be held and used are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. The carrying amount of a long-lived asset is not recoverable if it exceeds the sum of the undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use and eventual disposal of the asset. Long-lived assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of the carrying amount or fair value less cost to sell. No impairment loss was recognized during the years ended October 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively.


p. Research and Development


Research and development costs consist of expenditures for the development of present and future patents and technology, which are not capitalizable. Under current legislation, we are eligible for UK and Norway tax credits related to our qualified research and development expenditures.


Tax credits are classified as a reduction of research and development expense. During the years ended October 31, 2017 and 2016, we had $416,624 and $341,777, respectively.


q. Stock Based Compensation


We recognize the expense related to the fair value of stock based compensation awards within the consolidated statements of income and comprehensive income. We use the fair value method for equity instruments granted to non-employees and use the Black-Scholes model for measuring the fair value. The stock based fair value compensation is determined as of the date of the grant or the date at which the performance of the services is completed (measurement date) and is recognized over the periods in which the related services are rendered.


r. Comprehensive Income


Comprehensive income is defined to include all changes in equity except those resulting from investments by owners and distributions to owners. Comprehensive income includes gains and losses on foreign currency translation adjustments and is included as a component of stockholders’ equity.


s. Earnings Per Share


We compute basic earnings per share by dividing the income attributable to common shareholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding. Diluted earnings per share include the dilutive effect, if any, from the potential exercise of stock options and warrants.


Following is a reconciliation of earnings from continuing operations and weighted average common shares outstanding for purposes of calculating basic and diluted earnings per share:


    Year     Year  
    Ended     Ended  
    Oct 31,     Oct 31,  
Fiscal Period   2017     2016  
Net Income   $ 3,339,663     $ 4,930,548  
Basic weighted average common shares outstanding     9,111,356       8,282,988  
Conversion of Series C Preferred Stock     200,000       157,143  
Diluted outstanding shares     9,311,356       8,440,131  
Earnings from continuing operations                
Basic   $ 0.37     $ 0.60  
Diluted   $ 0.36     $ 0.58  


t. Restricted Cash


The Company was required to have a specific cash account to guarantee a lease in Norway whereby the lessor had access to draw on the account upon default on the lease. The amount required to be held in the account was $0 and $13,694 as of October 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively, and is shown as a short term asset as of October 31, 2016. This lease expired and the premises were surrendered in accordance with its terms and upon which this amount was repaid to the Company.


u. Recent Accounting Pronouncements


There have been no new accounting pronouncements made effective during fiscal year 2017 that have significance, or potential significance, to our Consolidated Financial Statements.


Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Effective


On May 28, 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, requiring an entity to recognize the amount of revenue to which it expects to be entitled for the transfer of promised goods or services to customers. The updated standard will replace most existing revenue recognition guidance in U.S. GAAP when it becomes effective and permits the use of either the retrospective or cumulative effect transition method. In August 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-14, Revenue from Contracts with Customers: Deferral of the Effective Date, which deferred the effective date of the new revenue standard for periods beginning after December 15, 2016 to December 15, 2017, with early adoption permitted but not earlier than the original effective date. We are currently evaluating the effect that the updated standard will have on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.


On February 24, 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases, requiring lessees to recognize a right-of-use asset and a lease liability on the balance sheet for all leases with the exception of short-term leases. For lessees, leases will continue to be classified as either operating or finance leases in the balance sheet. Lessor accounting is similar to the current model but updated to align with certain changes to the lessee model. Lessors will continue to classify leases as operating, direct financing or sales-type leases. The effective date of the new standard for public companies is for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018 and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. The new standard must be adopted using a modified retrospective transition and requires application of the new guidance at the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented. We are currently evaluating the effect that the updated standard will have on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.


On March 30, 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting, which simplifies various aspects related to the accounting and presentation of share-based payments. The amendments require entities to record all tax effects related to share-based payments at settlement or expiration through the income statement and the windfall tax benefit to be recorded when it arises, subject to normal valuation allowance considerations. All tax-related cash flows resulting from share-based payments are required to be reported as operating activities in the statement of cash flows. The updates relating to the income tax effects of the share-based payments including the cash flow presentation must be adopted either prospectively or retrospectively. Further, the amendments allow the entities to make an accounting policy election to either estimate forfeitures or recognize forfeitures as they occur. If an election is made, the change to recognize forfeitures as they occur must be adopted using a modified retrospective approach with a cumulative effect adjustment recorded to opening retained earnings. The effective date of the new standard for public companies is for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016 and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. We have evaluated this standard and do not feel that it will have a negative impact on our financial statements.


With the exception of the updated standards discussed above, there have been no new accounting pronouncements not yet effective that have significance, or potential significance, to our Consolidated Financial Statements.


v. Liquidity


At October 31, 2017, we had cash on hand of approximately $6.9 million and both billed and unbilled receivables of approximately $4.1 million. Our current cash balance represents approximately one year of Selling, General and Administrative Expenses. The Company continues to critically evaluate the level of expenses that we incur and reduce those expenses as appropriate.